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Why Natural Dyes are the Future of Fashion

Steve Russell - February 8, 2024

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Natural dyes are transforming the fashion industry, offering a sustainable alternative to synthetic dyes. These dyes have been used for centuries, derived from natural sources — like plants, minerals and certain insects.

However, they’re making a big comeback as the fashion world seeks greener, more eco-friendly practices. Unlike synthetic dyes, which often involve harmful chemicals, natural dyes can color fabrics that are kinder to the environment and safer for consumers and workers. This return to natural materials is instrumental in the industry’s shift towards sustainability and environmental responsibility.

The Current State of Fashion and Environmental Impact

Synthetic dyes — which most manufacturers use in the fashion industry — often contain toxic chemicals that can harm aquatic life and disrupt ecosystems. Producing and using these dyes typically requires large amounts of water and energy, contributing to resource depletion and pollution.

Given these issues, there’s an urgent need for sustainable alternatives. Natural dyes emerge as a promising solution, offering a more ecological approach. They are biodegradable and require less water and energy for production and processing.

Shifting to natural dyes can significantly reduce the fashion industry’s environmental footprint, which produces 10% of global carbon emissions. Adopting these alternatives aligns with the worldwide commitment to environmental conservation and sustainable living.

What are Natural Dyes?

Natural dyes are colorants from natural sources. Familiar plant-based sources include roots, berries, bark, leaves and wood. For instance, Indigo — a famous blue dye — comes from the leaves of certain plants. Minerals also offer a palette of colors, like ochre from earth pigments.

In contrast, synthetic dyes are artificial, created through chemical processes often involving petroleum products. These dyes offer a broader range of vibrant colors and consistent results compared to natural materials. However, they typically require more energy and chemicals to produce and can harm the environment and human health due to their toxic components.

On the other hand, natural dyes are less toxic and biodegradable, aligning better with eco-friendly and sustainable practices. However, they may offer a more limited color range and can be less colorfast than their synthetic counterparts.

Benefits of Natural Dyes

The shift towards natural dyes in the fashion industry brings various benefits across environmental, social and economic dimensions.


Natural dyes significantly reduce environmental pollution. They are generally free from the toxic chemicals in synthetic dyes, which means less water and soil contamination during dyeing.

Moreover, these dyes are biodegradable because they come from natural sources. This property ensures the shades break down naturally when people discard clothes, causing minimal environmental impact.

Social and Health

The production and application of natural dyes involve fewer toxic chemicals, making the working environment safer for those in the dye manufacturing and application industry. In addition, they are less likely to cause skin irritation and allergies, offering a healthier option for consumers, especially those with sensitivities to certain chemicals.


Sourcing natural dyes involves local materials and traditional techniques, providing economic opportunities for rural and indigenous communities. Further, by investing in these dyes, the fashion industry encourages sustainable farming and harvesting practices, contributing to the industry’s overall sustainability.

They offer a triple win for the environment, society and economy, aligning with the growing global commitment to sustainability and ethical practices in fashion.

Examples of Natural Dyes

Indigo and Madder are two favored natural dyes for coloring cotton fabrics, each offering unique hues and characteristics.

Indigo is famous for its deep blue color. It comes from the leaves of the Indigofera plant. Indigo-dyed cotton possesses a vibrant color and unique fading characteristics over time, primarily seen in denim.

In addition, Madder produces a range of reds, oranges and pinks and comes from the roots of the Rubia plant. Madder is famous for its ability to make various shades depending on the mordants (substances to fix the dye) and the specific dyeing process.

These dyes work well on cotton, bonding naturally with the fibers. The results are warm, earthy tones with Madder and vibrant blues with Indigo.

On the other hand, Logwood and Cochineal are two notable dyes that are particularly well-suited for dyeing wool. 

Logwood comes from the heartwood of the Logwood tree and yields various colors, from blues and purples to blacks. The pH of the dye bath can affect the resulting color — more acidic solutions bring out red-purple hues, while alkaline conditions lead to blues and blacks.

Meanwhile, Cochineal comes from the insect of the same name. It’s famous for its brilliant red color from insects that producers grind into a powder and boil in water. It can produce a range of red, from bright scarlet to deep burgundy, depending on the mordants and the length of dyeing.

These dyes are excellent choices for wool due to their strong affinity with protein fibers. The colors they produce on the thread are striking and relatively colorfast, making them a popular choice for high-quality, sustainable woolen textiles.

Challenges and Solutions

Using natural dyes, while beneficial for the environment, comes with challenges, particularly in cost and scalability.


Natural dyes often require more raw material than synthetic alternatives to produce the same amount. Additionally, the processes involved in harvesting, processing and applying them can be more labor-intensive and time-consuming, contributing to higher costs.

Scaling up natural dye production to meet the demands of the global fashion industry is challenging. Seasons and geographic locations limit the availability of raw materials. Likewise, the consistency in color and quality can be more difficult to maintain across large batches.


Manufacturers are trying to sustainably source and cultivate dye plants, reducing the environmental impact and cost. Some brands are growing dye plants as part of their supply chain to ensure a steady, sustainable supply.

Likewise, technological advances are helping improve the efficiency and scalability of natural dye processes. For instance, producers are developing new dye extraction and application methods to get more color from less material and reduce water and energy usage.

Brands also partner with local communities and artisans, leveraging traditional knowledge while providing fair compensation. This approach supports local economies and ensures a more sustainable supply chain.

Coloring the Future Green

Your choices can profoundly impact society as you stand at the crossroads of fashion and sustainability. Your support for sustainable fashion encourages the industry to innovate and move towards more environmentally friendly methods.

Every purchase you make is a vote for the world you want to live in. So, choose wisely, support sustainability and help paint a greener, more vibrant future for the next generations.

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About the author

Steve Russell

Steve is the Managing Editor of Environment.co and regularly contributes articles related to wildlife, biodiversity, and recycling. His passions include wildlife photography and bird watching.